六堆客家傳統地域認同與差異性之研究 

摘要

自1987 年《客家風雲》雜誌社(客家雜誌前身)創刊以來, 客家文化已成為台灣文化的重要內涵;「客家學」便成為台灣的 學術界研究的風潮,並呈現出許多的研究面貌與學術成果。地理 學者對「客家區域」研究有著十分的好奇與憧憬,它如何產生? 如何延續?甚至如何擴散(施雅軒2007)?而「日久他鄉『真的』 變故鄉?」因軍事而發展出來的「六堆傳統地區」,在歷經不同 的政治主體、社會經濟發展的演替,對離鄉久居於六堆客庄的客 家鄉親來說,所謂的「傳統六堆地域空間」區域特徵為何?在文 化認同與地域認同上,其差異性又為何?在這樣的背景與想法 下,引發本研究的旨趣。

本研究從文化地理的角度,探討六堆地區客家文化的分布現象、空間演化的原則,以及客庄的環境生態與人地關係。為瞭解 六堆傳統地域認同與空間尺度認知,本研究採用量化問卷分析, 研究課題聚焦在梳理不同世代、不同社經條件與不同居住地的客 家人,對客庄地方認同與地域概念的理解。基於理解不同社經背 景對客家傳統地域的認同之異同,以及六堆不同行政轄區的界線 與發展型態的認同差異,本研究研究區域以六堆地區為範圍,並 以各堆所包含的行政轄區 (鄉鎮市區、村里)為單位,瞭解不同 生活的經驗是否造成受訪者其對客家地域認同有所不同,以及對 空間尺度認知產生差異。最後,期望能將調查結果同時做為客家 委員會、高雄市客家事務委員會與屏東縣政府客家事務處規劃客 庄文化、語言、聚落營造等政策之未來依據。
關鍵字:尺度、六堆、客家文化重點發展區、地域認同

Since the inception of Hakka People Magazine (the predecessor of Hakka Magazine) in 1987, "Hakka studies" has become a trend in Taiwan's academic research, and has shown many research features and academic achievements. Among them, geographers have a lot of curiosity and embarrassment about how to produce the "Hakka region?, How to continue?, and even how to spread out For the " Liu-Dui area" set up for military purposes, in the succession of different political subjects and socio-economic development, the characteristics of the so-called "traditional Liu-Dui regional space" for the Hakka folks who have lived in Liu-Dui Hakka village for a long time. Why? What is the difference between cultural identity and geographical identity? In this context, the purpose of this study was initiated.

From the perspective of cultural geography, this research explores the distribution phenomenon of Hakka culture in Liu-Dui area, the principles of spatial evolution, the environmental ecology and the relationship between Hakka villages and man-land relationship. In order to understand the traditional geographical identity and spatial scale cognition of Liu-Dui, this study adopted quantitative questionnaire analysis and analyzed the Hakka of different generations, different socioeconomic conditions and different places of residence, and explored the local identity and geographical concept of the Hakka. Based on the similarities and differences of different socio-economic backgrounds on the Hakka traditional regions, and the differences in the identification of the boundaries and development patterns of the Liu-Dui administrative jurisdictions, this research scope is based on the Liu-Dui areas, and the administrative jurisdictions included in each administrative jurisdiction (township and urban areas, villages) as a unit to carry out the similarities and differences between residents' perceptions of regional identity and spatial scale in different life experiences. Finally, the results could offer some policy suggestions for the Hakka Affairs Council 、 Council for Hakka Affairs of Kaohsiung City Government and Department of Hakka Affairs of Pingtung County Government to future planning.
Keyword: Geographic Scale, Liu-Dui, Hakka culture development area and local identity

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2020-07-07 客家學院

客家 • 中大 NCU • HAKKA