六堆客家地方公眾信仰:以周邊福佬地區 為對照的研究 

摘要

本研究主要想探問三百多年來屏東平原的客家人如何藉助地 方公眾信仰形塑有別於福佬的六堆客家社會?研究範圍為六堆客 家及周邊地區,研究材料來自2012 年「六堆客家信仰調查研究案」 之基礎資料。調查項目包括寺廟、主神、沿革、祭祀組織、祭祀 活動(時間與地點)。研究者續於2017-2018 年進行補查1。行文首 向臺灣民間信仰研究取經,借用祭祀圈概念檢視地方公眾信仰,討論該概念的適用性。其次,關注六堆客家的社會文化脈絡,提 供六堆客家內外部的觀點。將地方公眾信仰視為六堆客家社會的 鏡像反映,可見六堆客家人曾經聚合在義民爺與媽祖信仰號召之 下;堆間或堆內曾各別經營地方公眾信仰。最後以六堆周邊福佬 社會為六堆客家之對照,發現文化普同性與變異性。
關鍵字:六堆、客家、福佬、地方公眾信仰、祭祀圈

This study aims to explain how the Hakka, living on Pingtung plain (屏東平原) over three hundred years, did construct the Liu-du Hakka (六堆客家) society by folk belief different from the Hoklo (福 佬) society. Research area is the Liu-du Hakka and its area nearby. We collect data from the ‘Program of Liu-du Hakka belief’ in 2012. That fieldwork is focused on temples, gods, history, cult organization, and cult activity (time and area). After that, we recollect more data in some area since 2017 to 2018. Hope to compare the folk belief’s characteristic of the Liu-du Hakka with that of its area nearby through folk belief study in Taiwan. We review cult sphere concept and look out its application. Hope to provide perspective of Liu-du Hakka insider and outsider in different social-cultural context. After considering folk belief as reflexivity of Liu-du Hakka society, we will find out that every Du (堆) had ever been cooperative with each otherunder the worship of the Iminye (義民爺) and the Matsu(媽祖). Some parts of the Liu-du Hakka had ever organized their own worship independently. Finally comparing the Liu-du Hakka with the Hoklo nearby, we will explain cultural universality and diversity.
Keyword: Liu-du; Hakka; Hoklo; Folk belief; Cult sphere

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2020-07-07 客家學院

客家 • 中大 NCU • HAKKA